Pescatarian Diet: Pros, Cons, and How It Works
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The pescatarian diet is a vegetarian diet that includes fish or other aquatic animals. The word "pesce" means fish in Italian, so those that emphasize fish in their plant-based diets have come to be called by this term. Sometimes these healthy eaters are also called pesco-vegetarians or pescetarians.
What Experts Say
"Defined as a vegetarian diet with the addition of fish, the pescatarian diet can be a great choice for those searching for a nutritious meal plan. Plant-based foods provide numerous vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals, and the seafood supplies omega-3 fatty acids and protein."
—Chrissy Carroll, RD, MPH
There are no strict guidelines that determine what is a pescatarian and what is a vegetarian. And there are no rules that define how often you need to eat fish in order to be a pescatarian. For example, you may be a vegetarian who occasionally eats fish or you may include it in every meal.
Nutritionists say that pescatarians tend to be people who are health-conscious and make mindful choices when planning meals. They may be individuals who are considering a vegetarian diet and are using a fish-based approach to acclimate themselves to plant-based eating. Or they may be people who plan to follow a pescetarian diet for the long term, to improve their health by avoiding red meat.
How It Works
To follow a pescatarian diet, you'll consume meals that include fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, and seafood. A healthy pescatarian diet will often include flavorful foods such as olives, whole grains like farro and quinoa, spicy peppers, nuts, seeds, vegetable oils, and other nutritious, filling ingredients.
What to Eat
Fruits and vegetables
Dairy products and eggs
The seafood on a pescatarian diet may include freshwater fish such as trout or perch, saltwater fish like salmon or tuna, and shellfish including shrimp, oysters, clams, and more.
Fruits and Vegetables
A typical pescatarian meal might include vegetables, seafood or plant protein, and whole grains or other complex carbs. There are no limits on the types of fruits and vegetables that can be included. In order to take advantage of the benefits of this eating style, you'll want to eat the rainbow and fill up on produce. Add dark leafy greens, bright red, yellow, and orange peppers, eggplant, corn, blueberries, kiwi, and other fruits and veggies.
Grains make a great side dish when you are eating fish, and they provide fiber and other important nutrients. Whole grains are a better choice, since they provide more nutrients and fewer sugars (and often, additives).
Dairy Products and Eggs
Most pescatarians eat eggs and dairy, although some do not. Technically, a pescatarian who eats eggs and dairy would be called a lacto-ovo-pescatarian.
Meat, Poultry, and Game
Regardless of whether or not you eat certain animal products like yogurt or cheese, if you follow a pescatarian diet you won't eat meat or meat products. That means you'll not only avoid red meat (like beef or bison) but you'll also avoid poultry, lamb, pork, and game (such as venison).
This is wide open, since the pescatarian diet is not a formal diet or weight loss plan. Eat meals and snacks whenever you prefer and as much as you prefer. Of course, if you are looking to lose weight, portion control will be important. You're already on your way by choosing a diet that is nutrient-dense and naturally lower in calories and fat. Choosing portion sizes wisely could be all you need to do to lose weight.
Resources and Tips
To make your pescatarian diet easier and healthier:
- Choose healthy cooking methods. If you choose fried fish and processed foods, you may not reap the health benefits of this eating style. Grill or broil fish using healthy cooking oils, steam your seafood, or use other lower-fat methods, such as sautéing and baking, to prepare your meals.
- Stock up on canned or packaged seafood. Fresh seafood usually needs to be cooked or frozen within a few days of purchase. Stock up on tuna packets or canned fish so you always have a seafood source ready to go.
- Get help with cooking. Some people are intimidated by the pescatarian diet because cooking seafood can be complicated and planning fish-based meals may seem unfamiliar. To learn more, take a class. Many cooking schools and kitchen stores provide free or inexpensive options. You'll learn how to get creative with spices and sauces so your fish-based eating plan never goes stale. There are also many quick and easy meals that you can either grab-and-go or prepare in advance to make following the diet plan easier. Several meal kit services offer pescatarian and vegetarian meals, too.
If you are pregnant, you will need to avoid raw fish (sushi and sashimi) and watch out for the mercury levels in the fish you are eating. You'll also want to be cautious about mercury if you are breastfeeding or have small children who eat pescatarian too. Fish high in mercury includes swordfish, shark, mackerel, marlin, and tuna.
If you have a health condition such as diabetes, celiac disease, or heart disease, a pescatarian diet is likely safe and probably beneficial. But you should check with your health care provider just in case, to make sure you are getting the right mix of nutrients for you. It's also pretty easy to avoid gluten on a pescatarian diet if you need to.
Pros and Cons
More protein choices than a vegetarian diet
Can be a good source of omega-3 fatty acids
May have environmental benefits
Can be expensive
Watch for mercury levels
Some people who choose to eliminate meat from their diets find that following a pescatarian diet is easier than following a vegetarian diet because it is simpler to get enough protein each day. In addition, fish is a source of complete proteins, so you don't have to combine proteins to get the nutrients you need.
You'll also enjoy other wellness advantages if you choose this eating style. If you follow a pescatarian diet plan, you get the benefits that are associated with a vegetarian diet plus those associated with eating more fish.
Researchers have found that vegetarians, semi-vegetarians, and pesco-vegetarians have diets that are "mostly better in terms of nutrient quality" than omnivores (people who eat everything), although some critics would argue that other factors lead to the improved nutritional quality—not just food choices.
Studies have also shown that following a vegan or vegetarian-based diet (including a pescatarian diet) is associated with lower BMI (body mass index). Others have shown that people who follow a flexitarian diet (one that is primarily vegetarian but occasionally includes meat or fish) enjoy benefits including healthy body weight, improved markers of metabolic health, blood pressure, and reduced risk of type 2 diabetes.
In addition, fish is low in saturated fat and rich in other nutrients. When you replace meat-based meals with fish-based meals, you are likely to cut calories and fat from your diet to help you reach and maintain a healthy weight.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
When you eat certain types of fish, you boost your intake of omega-3 fatty acids. While some people take a supplement to get the recommended daily allowance, most health sources recommend that you get your intake from food. Omega-3 boosts heart health, may reduce symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, and may even help to improve brain and eye health.